Proper diet, exercise, and good mental health is all that is needed for a safe pregnancy. A pregnant women requires 300 calories more than her usual caloric requirement.
Have good meal three times a day and light breakfast three to five times a day. However diet plan should be decided by a consultant. Due to many electronic instruments like washing machine and mixer for household work today's women are hardly exposed to exercise.
Hence proper exercise with good guidance is necessary for pregnant women. Pregnant women with diabetes should take special precautions which can affect kidney and other organs.
This is because diabetes during pregnancy affects glomeruli filteration rate. Proper prenatal oral care is necessary since there is link between gum disease and premature underweight birth.
Further a proper sleep is required by mother. Sleep not only is required for good mental health but lack of proper sleep in last trimester may lead to obesity in offspring. Further would be mothers should not lie flat on their back for a long period of time. Sleep on the left side to allow for the best blood flow to the fetus and to one's uterus and kidneys.
Further there are pregnancy mattresses and pillows to help you sleep better. Further exposure to air pollution by mothers can lead to respiratory disorders in the offspring's.
Fast food which is a cause of obesity can also give rise to complication during pregnancy. Food that can cause obesity are bad both for pregnant women and later also for the baby. A research has shown that eating food high in fat and sugar during pregnancy can rewire your baby's brain and turn them into a junk food addict even before birth.
According to the study published in Journal Environment International, exposure to metals like nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead can disturb women's hormone during pregnancy. They can cause preeclampsia in women and also problems at birth such as pre term birth and low birth weight in babies.
Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of prematurity spontaneous abortion and perinatal mortality and hence should be better avoided. Further babies of women who smoke during pregnancy are at higher risk of obesity irrespective of their mother's weight.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy causes low birth weight, and also learning and behavioral disorders.
Pregnant women should avoid coffee and tea since they contain caffeine. They should also avoid green tea since it increases the metabolic rate and affects digestion.
As far as Air travel is concerned decision depends on various factors. Will the flight have frequent rest breaks, whether you will be able to eat and drink fluid well. Further how stressful will be the journey and lastly how important is the journey.
As far as the car travel is concerned pregnant women should avoid driving long distance and the seat belt should not be tight.
Liquorice which is a confectionary flavored with the liquorice plants root extract should be avoided by expectant mothers
In the first three months of pregnancy x-rays, dental anesthetics, plain medications and antibiotics should be avoided unless highly necessary.
Excessive use of mobile can be hazardous since, these devices emit radio waves that are likely to have an impact on the growing fetus. A recent study states that mobile can also cause behavioral problems to her offspring. The study also found that the risk is even higher if the offspring starts using mobiles themselves by the time they are seven.
Further late marriages cause complications in pregnancy. All these factor have increased the number of patients opting for caesarean. However avoiding caesarean can be beneficial both for baby and mother in future. Mothers who had surgical deliveries have a much higher risk of experiencing dangerous problems with placenta.
Though Papaya has magnesium , potassium, niacin, protein and natural fiber, unripe papaya should be avoided during pregnancy. Un Ripe can cause uterine contractions leading to early labor
Pregnant women should avoid coffee and tea since they contain caffeine. They should also avoid Green tea since it increases the metabolic rate and affects digestion.